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"Emergency medicine" 1 (64) 2015

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Modern non-lethal chemicalsagents: toxicological andclinical aspects

Authors: KurdilN.V., IvashchenkoO.V.

Categories: Medicine of emergency

Sections: Specialist manual

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Keywords

non-lethal weapons, acute poisoning.

Abstract:Diversity adopted for toxic substances, which differ from each other physico-chemicalproperties and physical state, the nature of the toxic effect and toxicity levels, significantly complicates the creation of means anti-gas protection, especially antidote drugs and effective indication and warning systems.

The aim of the study was selected toxicological characteristics of the most common military and police products containing toxic substances non-lethal action, clinical features of acute intoxication and principles of emergency medical care.

The analysis of scientific sources on the development and features of non-lethal poisons around the world was made. The problem of legal regulation of the manufacture and use of toxic substances in the work of special police units in Ukraine was considered. The basic toxicological characteristics of the most common toxic agents irritating actions that are in service around the uniformed services and formulated the basic principles of emergency medical care to victims of the use of non-lethal poisons. It was found that under of the Law of Ukraine "On licensing certain types of activities" in Ukraine and licensed the production and sale of special funds, charged substances irritating and tear action, active defense and personal protection. The Licensing rules for the production of means of active defense and sales from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine were considered. That Licensing conditions set technical, operating, organizational and special requirements of economic activities in the production and sale of special means of charged substances irritating and tear action, active defense and personal protection. Under the provisions of this by-law act, the category of active defense related including: gas, hand grenades, ammunition, cartridges and ammunition, equipped with gas grenades, hand grenades and other special devices based on natural CS, IPC and substance "Alhohen." By means of self-defense, charged with special substances irritating and tear action relating to Ukraine: Aerosols irritating and tear action (gas cartridges); gas guns and pistols and their ammunition 6, 8 and 9 millimeters, charged substances irritating and tear action. To charge the above special self-defense allowed recipe from irritating substances and tear actions that have been especially toxicological-hygienicstudy. The modern police toxic substances meet the following requirements: not cause irreversible harm, including overdose (after all, it is impossible to take into account weight, age, sex, health status offender in an extreme situation, and especially in the riots or when the offender is in secret); quickly deprive the combat capability of the offender; work at sawing the air, which means - to penetrate the body through the respiratory tract and mucous membrane of the eye.

Natural and synthetic capsaicin (CP) - a mixture of chemicals found in hot red pepper. Approved for use in Ukraine (only natural), but special devices on their basis are not carried out. Modern tear and irritant agents: Aerosol packaging with tear gas ("Cheremuha - 10", "Cheremuha - 110m", "Teren - 4", etc.); aerosol spray of irritant composition ("Siren 10"); Aerosol sprays ("Control-M" (10% OS), "Control-MC", "Control-MM", "Reseda-10", "Reseda-10M", "Zveroboy-10", "Zveroboy-10M"). The "Cheremuha" is a chemical non-lethal warfare agents - (CN) and strong lachrymator, lachrymatory substance irritating the mucous membranes of the eye, causing unrestrained tears. It affects mainly the eyes, also has a very strong general toxic effect. On cold "hanging in the air" and may be resistant to several hours. According to numbers "Cheremuha" are divided based on the number of chloroacetophenone in it, as well as ways of "packaging" (grenades, cartridges, aerosol can) and caliber. Chemical warfare agents in the media "Siren" - chlorbenzalmalonodinitril (CS)also tear stuff. It is a burning sensation in the mucous membranes, watery eyes, sneezing. In addition, as a result of its use can be a pain in the face and chest, burning and bleeding. Symptoms can occur up to three hours at a stretch. Also armed special police units are refills, cartridges, grenades and other special means of drugs tear and irritant based on natural capsaicin, morfolid pelargonic acid (IPC), CS and substance "Alhohen." This alkaloid is a Natural structural variants of capsaicin contained in various types of bitter peppers. Active substance IPC - morfolid pelargonic acid has a strong irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. Thus the irritation of the upper respiratory tract is more pronounced than lachrymatory effect. Toxicant causes a burning sensation in the nose and nasopharynx, shortness of breath, cough, and often nausea. The IPC in high concentrations causes pain on the skin, the symptoms are 10-15 minutes exposure to fresh air. Basic principles of treatment consist mainly of symptomatic treatment. To reduce irritation of mucous membranes used copious rinsing eyes, mouth and nose, washing face and hands with alkaline solutions of properties - 2% sodium hydrogen carbonate solution. The complex of therapeutic measures used 3 groups of assets: termination of nociceptive efferent impulses (the use of local anesthetics); activators of inhibition of nociceptive sensation (the use of narcotic analgesics - activators of opioids receptors in the brain); termination of efferent impulses (use m-cholinolytics with distinct vegetative disorders). Measures of care should be directed at preventing the further action of toxic substances toxicant removal of particles from the respiratory tract mucous membranes and conjunctiva of eyes, severe reduction effects caused by intoxication.

Poisonous substances lethal action is being actively used in many countries as a "police gas". Toxic effect of various groups of these substances is quite diverse. To equip special police units Ukraine is a wide range of non-lethal toxic substances whose use may cause a variety of symptoms and pathological states. The emergency doctors in their daily work often provide health care to affect various incapacitates particular irritants. Should be provided timely medical assistance to quickly eliminate symptoms of poisoning and avoid unwanted complications.


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