Інформація призначена тільки для фахівців сфери охорони здоров'я, осіб,
які мають вищу або середню спеціальну медичну освіту.

Підтвердіть, що Ви є фахівцем у сфері охорони здоров'я.

"Kidneys" 1 (15) 2016

Back to issue

Sympathetic overdrive in hypertension: clinical and therapeutic relevance

Authors: Guido Grassi - Clinica Medica, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy

Categories: Nephrology

Sections: Specialist manual

print version

The article was published on p. 9-14, 15

 

Recently, there has been renewed interest in the role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension for several reasons: 1) fin–dings that sympathetic abnormalities can influence the development and progression of target organ damage; 2) the development of new the–rapeutic approaches for the control of blood pressure; and 3) findings that sympathetic activation has an adverse prognostic effect in terms of morbidity and mortality on a variety of cardiovascular diseases. This underlines the importance of the modulation of sympathetic activation as a goal for non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions aimed at lowering elevated blood pressure values. Data, however, remain scarce and further research is required to define the role of genetic factors, the relationship between sympathetic function and target organ damage, and the effects of combination drug treatments on sympathetic neural function and its relationship with blood pressure control.

Background

The renewed interest of investigators and clinicians the role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension and its relevance as a target for non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions comes from a number of sources. First, the recent finding that sympathetic abnormalities favor the development and progression of target organ damage, independently from blood pressure overload [1, 2]. Second, the availability of new therapeutic approaches for the treatment and control of high blood pressure in high-risk conditions such as resistant hypertension, i.e., carotid baroreceptor stimulation and renal nerve radiofrequency ablation [2]. Finally, there is the finding that, in a variety of major cardiovascular diseases, such as congestive heart failure, stroke, myocardial infarction and renal failure-related hypertension, sympathetic activation has an independent adverse prognostic relevance in terms of both morbidity and mortality [3–7].
Taken together, these findings underscore the importance of the modulation of sympathetic activation as a goal for non-pharmacological as well as pharmacological interventions aimed at lowering elevated blood pressure values.

Sympathetic activation in hypertension

Essential hypertensive states have been shown to be characterized not only by an impaired parasympathetic tone but also by marked sympathetic overdrive, with a resulting increase in resting heart rate values [1]. The sympathetic activation contributes to this haemodynamic alteration, due to the well-known positive chronotropic effects of the main adrenergic neurotransmitter, norepinephrine [1]. The two neurogenic abnormalities appear to be already present in the pre-hypertensive stage or in borderline hypertension [2]. However, while vagal dysfunction remains stable in magnitude in clinical conditions characterized by more severe increases in blood pressure, sympathetic activation undergoes a progressive potentiation as the severity of the hypertensive state increases [8]. This has been shown particularly via direct approaches to investigate human sympathetic function, such as clinical microneurography, which, by directly recording efferent postganglionic sympathetic neural discharge in the peroneal or brachial nerve in man, allows the well-known limitations of plasma norepinephrine assay as an adrenergic marker to be overcome [2].
The above-mentioned sympathetic dysregulation has been shown in the different stages of hypertension (mild, moderate, severe), in hypertensive forms of young, middle-aged and elderly patients, in white-coat hypertension, masked hypertension and pregnancy-induced high blood pressure [1, 2]. Recently, other clinical conditions found to be associated with sympathetic overactivity have been documented. They include dipping or non-dipping hypertension, hypertension complicated by sleep apnoea, metabolic syndrome or renal failure, and true resistant hypertension [1, 2, 9]. Finally, it should be mentioned that: 1) secondary forms of hypertension, such as renovascular hypertension, do not appear to be associated with sympathetic activation, and 2) the mechanisms responsible for the hypertension-related adrenergic overdrive appear to be complex, including alterations in the neurogenic, reflex as well as metabolic modulation of the sympathetic tone [1, 2].

Clinical relevance of the hypertension-related sympathetic overactivity

Direct and indirect evidence is now available that a state of sympathetic activation promotes cardiac and vascular alterations, thus contributing to the elevated morbidity and mortality described in untreated hypertension [1, 2]. As far as cardiac alterations are concerned, there is evidence that a heightened cardiac sympathetic drive is detected in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy or even with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, underlining the concept that factors other than blood pressure elevation are of key importance for determining the myocardial structural and functional alterations detectable in the clinical course of the hypertensive state [10, 11]. In addition, sympathetic activation has been shown to participate in the development and progression of vascular remodelling, endothelial dysfunction as well as in the increase in arterial stiffening reported in the hypertensive state [12, 13]. Finally, recent studies show that both the metabolic and renal abnormalities which characterize not only advanced but also earlier stages of hypertension are indeed associated with sympathetic alterations, which appear to potentiate the adrenergic overdrive already seen in uncomplicated hypertension [14, 15].

Sympathoinhibition as a goal of antihypertensive drug treatment

As illustrated in Table 1, a reduction in sympathetic cardiovascular drive may trigger a series of favorable cardiovascular and cardiometabolic consequences. Those more relevant from a clinical view point include: 1) a homogeneous blood pressure control during a 24-hour period, 2) a reduction in 24-hour blood pressure variability, 3) a regression of target organ damage, and 4) an improvement of the metabolic abnormalities associated with hypertension. Conversely, of a totally opposite nature are the cardiovascular and cardiometabolic consequences of sympathoexcitatory drugs (Table 1), which favor, again directly or indirectly, 1) a lesser homogeneous blood pressure control, 2) a greater blood pressure variability, and 3) reduced cardiac organ damage regression as well as a worsening of the metabolic abnormalities associated with hypertension.

Sympathetic effects of non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions

As far as non-pharmacological interventions are concerned, there is overwhelming evidence demonstrating the sympathomodulatory effects of low-calorie dietary interventions and regular physical exercise programs [16, 17]. Since both procedures trigger clear-cut blood pressure-lowering effects of a magnitude often related to the degree of the sympathoinhibition, the hypothesis has been advanced that the antihypertensive effects of the two interventions are related to their sympathoinhibitory effects [16, 17]. Conversely, an enhancement of the already elevated adrenergic drive has been reported during a long-term and marked low sodium diet [16, 17]. This is presumably related to the fact that marked dietary sodium restriction elicits hyperinsulinemia and renin-angiotensin stimulation, i.e., two effects which promote sympathoexcitation and impair baroreflex control of both vagal and sympathetic drive [1, 2]. Recently, two invasive procedures, i.e., implantation of a device capable of stimulating the carotid baroreceptor (and thus inhibiting sympathetic activity and enhancing baroreflex control of cardiac vagal drive), and renal sympathetic denervation through a catheter positioned in a renal artery and connected to a radiofrequency generator, have been successfully developed. They are both under clinical investigation to define their blood pressure-lowering effects, which may be associated with a reduction in sympathetic drive [18, 19].
As far as the effects of antihypertensive drug treatment on autonomic cardiovascular function are concerned, there is evidence that, as shown in Table 2, some pharmacologic classes of antihypertensive drugs (such as beta-blockers, аngiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers) may elicit profound sympathoinhi–bitory effects, while other classes may leave unchanged (long-acting calcium antagonists), or even further increase (diuretics, short-acting calcium antagonists), the adrenergic cardiovascular drive [16, 20–22]. Information on the effects of different antihypertensive drug combinations on autonomic cardiovascular function is scarce at present and mainly based on indirect, and thus less sensitive, markers of sympathetic drive such as plasma norepinephrine.

Conclusions

A number of issues related to the role of the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension remain to be defined:
— the role of genetic factors in hypertension-related sympathetic overdrive;
— the relationship between the various indices of sympathetic function and the novel markers of target organ damage/arterial dysfunction;
— the effects of combination drug treatment on sympathetic neural function and its possible relationship with blood pressure control.

 

Комментарий специалиста

Статья Guido Grassi (университет Milano-Bicocca, Милан) вызвала интерес редакции в связи с ренессансом роли доминирования гиперактивности симпатической системы в развитии и прогрессировании заболеваний почек. Акцент на состоянии симпатической системы тем более интересен, что автор является сотрудником ведущего университета (клиническая база госпиталя г. Монза). Не останавливаясь на вопросах патогенеза, хотелось бы еще раз вернуться к современной терапии.
Как следует из табл. 2 цитируемой статьи, лишь блокаторы РААС (ИАПФ/БРА и не приведенный в таблице прямой ингибитор ренина, а также блокаторы минералокортикоидных рецепторов) понижают функцию симпатической системы, негативно не влияя на сердце. Эти препараты принято называть ренопротекторными, так как с доказательной точки зрения лишь они способствуют увеличению сроков до начала почечнозаместительной терапии при ХБП. 
Вместе с тем существуют по крайней мере два фактора, которые заставляют расширять спектр назначаемых препаратов, снижающих гиперактивность симпатической системы. Первый — это необходимость комбинированной терапии артериальной гипертензии при ХБП, которая возрастает по мере снижения СКФ. Второй — высокая вероятность необходимости отмены блокаторов РААС при ХБП 4–5-й стадий в связи с их способностью снижать СКФ. 
В связи с этим возникает вопрос: что использовать в дополнение или чем заменить блокаторы РААС при прогрессирующей утрате функций почек? Ответ опять-таки в табл. 2 цитируемого автора: симпатолитики, бета-блокаторы (практически только небиволол из-за его свойства снижать центральное АД) и блокаторы кальциевых каналов длительного действия (а правильнее — низковольтных рецепторов), из которых в Украине в наличии только лерканидипин. О современных симпатолитиках мы пишем практически в каждом номере журнала: это блокатор имидазолиновых рецепторов — Моксогамма (0,2, 0,3 и 0,4 мг моксонидина). 
Таким образом, наличие и формирование доказательной базы позволяют рекомендовать формулу использования блокаторов гиперактивности симпатической системы, в той или иной мере обладающих ренопротекторным эффектом: БРИМОНЕЛ — БР(А) И(АПФ) МО(ксонидин) НЕ(биволол) Л(ерканидипин). Их комбинация не рекомендуется для широкой практики и с осторожностью применяется в нефрологии при СКФ более 60 мл/мин. Комбинация ИАПФ и БРА, очевидно, на сегодняшний день является: 1) патогенетически обоснованной; 2) клинически эффективной и 3) достоверно снижающей смертность при ХБП. 

Bibliography

1. Mancia G., Grassi G. The autonomic nervous system and hypertension // Circ. Res. 2014, May 23; 114(11): 1804-14.

2. Grassi G., Mark A., Esler M. The sympathetic nervous system alterations in human hypertension // Circ. Res. 2015, Mar 13; 116(6): 976-90.

3. Cohn J.N., Levine T.B., Olivari M.T., Garberg V., Lura D., Francis G.S., Simon A.B., Rector T. Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure // N. Engl. J. Med. 1984, Sep 27; 311(13): 819-23.

4. Brunner-La Rocca H.P., Esler M.D., Jennings G.L., Kaye D.M. Effect of cardiac sympathetic nervous activity on mode of death in congestive heart failure // Eur. Heart J. 2001 Jul; 22(13): 1136-43.

5. Sander D., Winbeck K., Klingelhöfer J., Etgen T., Conrad B. Prognostic relevance of pathological sympathetic activation after acute thromboembolic stroke // Neurology. 2001, Sep 11; 57(5): 833-8.

6. Zoccali C., Mallamaci F., Parlongo S., Cutrupi S., Benedetto F.A., Tripepi G., Bonanno G., Rapisarda F., Fatuzzo P., Seminara G., Cataliotti A., Stancanelli B., Malatino L.S. Plasma norepinephrine predicts survival and incident cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease // Circulation. 2002, Mar 19; 105(11): 1354-9.

7. Barretto A.C., Santos A.C., Munhoz R., Rondon M.U., Franco F.G., Trombetta I.C., Roveda F., de Matos L.N., Braga A.M., Middlekauff H.R., Negrão C.E. Increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity predicts mortality in heart failure patients // Int. J. Cardiol. 2009, Jul 10; 135(3): 302-7.

8. Grassi G., Cattaneo B.M., Seravalle G., Lanfranchi A., Mancia G. Baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity in essential and secondary hypertension // Hypertension. 1998 Jan; 31(1): 68-72.

9. Grassi G., Seravalle G., Brambilla G., Pini C., Alimento M., Facchetti R., Spaziani D., Cuspidi C., Mancia G. Marked sympathetic activation and baroreflex dysfunction in true resistant hypertension // Int. J. Cardiol. 2014, Dec 20; 177(3): 1020-5.

10. Burns J., Sivananthan M.L., Ball S.G., Mackintosh A.E., Mary D.A., Greenwood J.P. Relationship between central sympathetic drive and magnetic resonance determined left ventricular mass in essential hypertension // Circulation. 2007, Apr 17; 115(15): 1999-2005.

11. Grassi G., Seravalle G., Quarti-Trevano F., Dell’Oro R., Arenare F., Spaziani D., Mancia G. Sympathetic and baroreflex cardiovascular control in hypertension-related left ventricualr diastolic dysfunction // Hypertension. 2009 Feb; 53(2): 205-9.

12. Laurent S., Safar M.E. Large artery damage: measurement and clinical importance // Mancia G., Grassi G., Redon J. (eds). Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension. CRC Press (London), 2014: p191-201.

13. Heagerty A.M., Withers S.B., Izzard A.S., Greenstein A.S., Aghamohammadzadeh R. Small artery structure and function in hypertension // Mancia G., Grassi G., Redon J. (eds). Manual of Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension. CRC Press (London), 2014: 203-210.

14. Esler M., Straznicky N., Eikelis N., Masuo K., Lambert G., Lambert E. Mechanisms of sympathetic activation in obesity-related hypertension // Hypertension. 2006 Nov; 48(5): 787-96.

15. Grassi G., Quarti-Trevano F., Seravalle G., Arenare F., Volpe M., Furiani S., Dell’Oro R., Mancia G. Early sympathetic activation in the initial clinical stages of chronic renal failure // Hypertension. 2011 Apr; 57(4): 846-51.

16. Grassi G. Counteracting the sympathetic nervous sytem in hypertension // Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 2004 Sep; 13(5): 513-9.

17. Mancia G., Fagard R., Narkiewicz K., Redón J., Zanchetti A., Böhm M., Christiaens T., Cifkova R., De Backer G., Dominiczak A., Galderisi M., Grobbee D.E., Jaarsma T., Kirchhof P., Kjeldsen S.E., Laurent S., Manolis A.J., Nilsson P.M., Ruilope L.M., Schmieder R.E., Sirnes P.A., Sleight P., Viigimaa M., Waeber B., Zannad F.; Task Force Members. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension // J. Hypertens. 2013 Jul; 31(7): 1281-357.

18. Bisognano J.D., Bakris G., Nadim M.K., Sanchez L., Kroon A.A., Schafer J., de Leeuw P.W., Sica D.A. Baroreflex activation therapy lowers blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension // J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2011, Aug 9; 58(7): 765-73.

19. Grassi G., Seravalle G., Brambilla G., Trabattoni D., Cuspidi C., Corso R., Pieruzzi F., Genovesi S., Stella A., Facchetti R., Spaziani D., Bartorelli A., Mancia G. Blood pressure responses to renal denervation precede and are independent of the sympathetic and baroreflex effects // Hypertension. 2015 Jun; 65(6): 1209-16.

20. Sica D. Centrally acting antihypertensive agents: an update // J. Clin. Hypertens. (Greenwich). 2007 May; 9(5): 399-405.

21. Wray D.W., Supiano M.A. Impact of aldosterone receptor blockade compared with thiazide therapy on sympathetic nervous system function in geriatric hypertension // Hypertension. 2010 May; 55(5): 1217-23.

22. Neumann J., Ligtenberg G., Oey L., Koomans H.A., Blankestjin P. Moxonidine normalizes sympathetic hyperactivity in patients with eprosartan-treated chronic renal failure // J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 2004 Nov; 15(11): 2902-7.

Согласие автора на публикацию в журнале «Почки» получено 24.12.15
Перевод с англ. П. Огилько
Оригинал статьи опубликован в e-journal of the ESC Council for Cardiology Practice, 24 Nov 2015, Vol. 13, № 36

Similar articles

Ниркова денервація — інтервенційна  терапія резистентної гіпертензії  Позиційна стаття Європейського товариства гіпертензії
Authors: Roland E. Schmiedera, Josep Redonb, Guido Grassic,k, Sverre E. Kjeldsend, Giuseppe Manciae, Krzysztof Narkiewiczf, Gianfranco Paratig, Luis Ruilopeh, Philippe van de Bornei, Costas Tsioufisj, a University Hospital Erlangen, Nephrology and Hypertension, Erlangen, Germany, b University of Valencia, Internal Medicine, Hypertension Unit, Valencia, Spain, c Clinica Medica, Ospedale S. Gerardo dei Tintori, Monza (Milan), Italy, d University of Oslo, Department of Cardiology at Ullevaal Hospital, Oslo, Norway, e University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Medicine, S. Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy, f Medical University of Gdansk, Department of Hypertension and Diabetology, Gdansk, Poland, g Department of Cardiology, S. Luca Hospital, Istituto Auxologico Italiano & Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy, h University Autonoma & Hypertension Unit, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain, i Department of Cardiology, Erasme Hospital, Brussels, Belgium, j University of Athens, First Cardiology Clinic, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece, k Istituto di Ricerche a Carattere Ccientifico IRCCS Multimedica, Sesto san Giovanni (Milan), Italy
"Hypertension" 2(22) 2012
Date: 2013.02.01
Categories: Family medicine/Therapy, Cardiology, Therapy
Sections: Specialist manual
Применение радиочастотной абляции для почечной денервации у пациентов с резистентной гипертензией в Украине с использованием международных рекомендаций и сертифицированного оборудования
Authors: Коваленко В.Н., Соколов Ю.Н., Сиренко Ю.Н., Соколов М.Ю., Рековец О.Л., Доброход А.С. - ГУ ННЦ «Институт кардиологии им. акад. Н.Д. Стражеско» НАМН Украины, г. Киев
"Hypertension" 4(24) 2012
Date: 2013.03.04
Categories: Family medicine/Therapy, Cardiology, Therapy
Sections: Clinical researches
Next Step in Chronic Kidney Disease Therapy
Authors: Ivanov D.D. - National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education named after P.L. Shupyk, Department of Nephrology and Renal Replacement Therapy, Kyiv, Ukraine
"Kidneys" 2 (16) 2016
Date: 2016.05.19
Categories: Nephrology
Sections: Specialist manual
Документ експертного консенсусу Європейского товариства кардіологів по катетерній денервації ниркових артерій. European Heart Journal Advance Access published April 25, 2013
Authors: Felix Mahfoud 1, Thomas Felix Lüscher 2, Bert Andersson 3, Iris Baumgartner 4, Renata Cifkova 5, Carlo DiMario 6, Pieter Doevendans 7, Robert Fagard 8, Jean Fajadet 9, Michel Komajda 10, Thierry Le Fèvre 11, Chaim Lotan 12, Horst Sievert 13, Massimo Volpe 14, 15, Petr Widimsky 16, William Wijns 17, Bryan Williams 18, Stephan Windecker 19, Adam Witkowski 20, Thomas Zeller 21 та Michael Böhm1, 1Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Deptartment of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; 4Swiss Cardiovascular Center, Clinical and Interventional Angiology, University and University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 5Center for Cardiovascular Prevention, Charles University Medical School I and Thomayer Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; 6NIHR Cardiovascular BRU, Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Trust, London, UK; 7Department of Cardiology, UMCU Utrecht the Netherlands and ICIN Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 8Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, KU Leuven University, Leuven, Belgium; 9Interventional Cardiology Unit, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France; 10Pitie Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Cardiology, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France; 11Institut Cardiovasculaire Paris Sud, Hopital Jacques Cartier, Massy, France; 12Heart Institute, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; 13CardioVascular Center Frankfurt, Sankt Katharinen, Frankfurt, Germany; 14Division of Cardiology, Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Rome Sapienza, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy; 15IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy; 16Cardiocenter, Charles University, Hospital ‘Royal Vineyards’, Prague, Czech Republic; 17Cardiovascular Centre Aalst, Aalst, Belgium; 18Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, UK; 19Klinik für Kardiologie, University and University Hospital Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 20Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, Institute of Cardiology,Warsaw, Poland; and 21Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie II, Universitäts-Herzzentrum Freiburg — Bad Krozingen, Bad Krozingen, Germany
"Hypertension" 3 (29) 2013
Date: 2013.07.05
Categories: Cardiology
Sections: Specialist manual

Back to issue