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"Child`s Health" 3 (46) 2013

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Peculiarities of Processes for Psychophysiological and Mental Adaptation and Problems of Evaluation of School Age Pupils Health State

Authors: Mostova O. P., Vinnytsia National Medical University named after M. Pyrogov

Categories: Pediatrics/Neonatology

Sections: Clinical researches

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Summary

The article describes the peculiarities of processes for psychophysiological and mental adaptation of pupils of school age. It is stated that the most optimal course of processes for psychophysiological adaptation is found among girls and boys who are distinguished by higher level of health state in comparison with other youth of the same age, the lack of donosological changes in health state and any symptoms of chronic pathology. At the same time the evaluation data of processes for mental adaptation has to define that the pupils with higher level of health are distinguished by slower and more complicated course of processes of mental adaptation.
The results obtained show distinctly that the definition of peculiarities related to the course of processes for psychophysiological and mental adaptation is an inalienable component for making complex health evaluation of pupils of school age. It constitutes an important prerequisite for developing and applying individualized health maintaining technologies.


Keywords

pupils, school age, psychophysiological adaptation, mental adaptation

All-round evaluation of children’s and teenagers’ health state nowadays has to be considered as a process provided not only for taking into account diseases or serious defects development. It determines the analysis peculiarities of adaptation processes. It should be noted that educational load is one of the main factors which can deteriorate health level of pupils nowadays. Moreover, its stress can cause disadaptive syndrome with neurotic reactions and behavior disorder with different degrees of expression [1, 3, 11, 12].

The purpose of research is to study some peculiarities of psychophysiological process and mental adaptation of school pupils within solving problems concerning health state evaluation as well as application of health keeping technologies.

Data to be Worked up and Methods of Research

The research has been provided on the basis of secondary education school in Vinnytsia-city and Research Center of Vinnytsia National Medical University named after M. Pyrogov. The peculiarities of psychophysiological and mental adaptation and health state of 484 pupils (248 girls and 236 boys) at the age of 14-17 have been defined during the research. Psychophysiological adaptation has been studied by characteristics of higher nervous activity, i. e. latent period of visual motor reactions, movability and balancing of nervous processes, functional possibilities of visual sensor system (critical frequency of faint light merger) and somatosensory analyzer (coordination of movements). The evaluation of peculiarities of psychic adaptation process for pupils has been made by means of personal tests of Eysenck, Spielberger, Mini-Mult and Shmishec. The evaluation of pupils health state provided for definition and estimation of disease characteristics followed by temporary lost capacity for work as well as chronic course pathological process, structural features of   distribution, etc. The statistical analysis of the results obtained brought about procedures of descriptive statistics and correlation analysis with the standard package for multidimensional statistic analysis under the title “Statistica 6.0 for Windows”. It should be noted that the mentioned analysis belong to the Center of New Information Technologies of Vinnytsia National Medical University named after M. J. Pyrogov, license № AXX910A374605FA.

The teenagers and young people who didn’t have any complaints about their health state and chronic diseases at the moment of examination were chosen for the research. The total number of teenagers and young people examined was 2207. After the preliminary screening questionnaire for defining subjects outlined peculiarities of health state only 792 pupils remained. Then some detailed clinic and laboratory research was done among boys and girls as well as girls and young people. It consisted of ultrasound diagnostics of heart, main vessels, thyroid gland, parenchyma organs of abdominal cavity, kidneys, bladder, thorax x-ray, spirography, rheovasography, stomatologic examination estimation of fundamental biochemical indices of blood.

For the further intensified research of peculiarities of processes for forming basic psychic and physiological functions and features of personality the following  selection was made. About 120 practically healthy girls and 108 healthy young men including 27 girls and 26 young men at an age of 14, 26 girls and 27 young men at an age of 15, 34 girls and 26 young men  at an age of 16 and 33 girls and 29 young men at an age of 17 were chosen. The second group of comparison was composed of 128 girls and 128 young men. Their level of health represented completely the peculiarities of pupils division according to groups of health in real school bodies (from 7.8 % to 12.0% pupils who belong to the first group of health; from 30.8% to 57.3 % pupils, who belong to the second group of health and from 34.3% to 59.4% pupils, who belong the third group of the health).

Results and Discussion

The data which were obtained in defining characteristics of such important criterion index of the functional state of higher nervous activity as speed of simple visual motor reaction could define the fact that the statistic certain low (p(t)1-2<0.05) indices for the latent period of sensomotor reaction were registered for the girls of the first group of comparison who had higher level of health. The level of their expression among 14-year old girls of the first group of comparison was about 215.50±2.86 (mc); among 14-year old girls of the second group of comparison it was 223.87±4.62 (mc)(p(t)1-2>0.05; among 15-year old girls of the first group it was 207.75±3.29(mc); among 15-year old girls of the second group it was 219.42±4.05(mc) (p(t)1-2<0.05); among 16-year old girls of the first group it was 205.41±2.81(mc); among 16-year old girls of the second group it was 218.50±4.80(mc) (p(t)1-2<0.05); among 17-year girls of the second group it was 209.09±2.28(mc); among 17-year old girls of the second group it was 220.32±4.07(mc) (p(t)1-2<0.05).

It should be noted that there are the best results both among girls of the first group and among girls of the second group at the age of 16 studying in the 10th form and the worst ones are to be seen among girls at the age 14 studying in the 8th form.

Similar situation has been observed among young men. Among 16-year old and 17-year old pupils the results were much better (p(t)1-2<0.05).

The defined indices concerning the latent period of sensomotor reaction related to the pupils of the first group of comparison in particular, the value of the latent period of a simple visual motor reaction among 14-year old young men of the first group of comparison was 218.74±3.01 (mc), among 14-year old young men of the second group of comparison it was 230.43±4.68 (mc) (p(t)1-2>0.05); among 15-year old young men of the first group  it was 221.75±2.15 (mc); among 15-year old young men of the second group it was 231.14±3.96 (mc) (p(t)1-2>0.05); among 16-year old young men of the first group it was 215.83±2.92 (mc); among 16-year old young men of the second group it was 228.42±4.17(mc) (p(t)1-2<0.05); among 17-year old young men of the first group it was 211.41±2.85 mc and among 17-year old young men of the second group it was 223.32±4.08 (p(t)1-2<0.05).

The most essential rate of changes in the indices studied that were distiquished by negative content among pupils both of the first and the second groups were registered between ages 14 and 15. The data of situational and personal alarm inherent in teenagers with higher level of health significantly previled.

As for the girls of the first and the second group, they displayed moderate predominance of schizoidiodis, psychastenia and hypochondria by means of Mini-Mult Questionnaire. Psychastenia prevailed among young people of the first group and schizoidiodis dominated among the youth of the second group.

Conclusion

  1. The results obtained testify that there was the most optimal course of processes for psychophysiological adaptation among boys and girls who belonged to the first group of comparison and were distinguished by higher level of health, lack of donosological disturbances in the health state and any symptoms of chronic pathology comparing to the youth of their own age.

  2. The evaluation of the course of processes concerning psychic adaptation denoted that the pupils with higher level of health were distinguished by slower and more complicated course of processes connected with psychic adaptation.

  3. The results obtained show distinctly that the definition of peculiarities related to the course of processes for psychophysiological and mental adaptation is an inalienable component for making complex health evaluation of pupils health state of school age and it constitutes an important prerequisite for developing and applying individualized health maintaining technologies.


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