Інформація призначена тільки для фахівців сфери охорони здоров'я, осіб,
які мають вищу або середню спеціальну медичну освіту.

Підтвердіть, що Ви є фахівцем у сфері охорони здоров'я.

"Child`s Health" 8 (51) 2013

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Assessment of Risk Factors for Possible Toxocariasis Invasion in Lugansk Region Population

Authors: Lovitskaya L.G. - State Instituon «Lugansk Regional Sanitary and Epidemiological Station» of Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine; Semenchenko S.L., Malysh P.N. - Department of Healthcare of Lugansk Regional State Administration; Sulzhenko M.Yu. - State Institution «Lugansk State Medical University»; Malyutenko K.P., Beletskaya L.M., Kuznetsov A.V. - Lugansk Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital, Lugansk, Ukraine

Categories: Pediatrics/Neonatology

Sections: Clinical researches

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Background. Toxocariasis — parasitosis-zoonosis caused by the migration of the larvae of the helminth dogs Toxocara canis. Human appears invasion complex of symptoms and syndromes referred to as Visceral larva migrans. The disease is widespread among both animals and humans. According to WHO prevalence canids — the main hosts Toxocara around the world is very high, reaching in some areas 90 %.

Toxocariasis most often affects children. There is an annual increase in the incidence of toxocariasis among children, especially in rural areas. High prevalence of Toxocara is set relatively in some professional groups, such as veterinarians, drivers, car mechanics, utility workers, amateur gardeners etc. With a massive Toxocara invasion, re-infection of human immune system disorders may develop severe visceral lesions and chronic organopathology formation in the first place — pulmonary disorders. The nature and severity of clinical symptoms depends on the intensity of infection and localization of granulomas in various organs and tissues, the immune status of the patient.

Toxocariasis is a professional interest for physicians in many clinical specialties: oncology, hematologists, allergists, pulmonologists, neurologists, pediatricians, internists, parasitologists, psychiatrists, family physicians etc.

The aim of our study was to investigate the factors that determine the possibility of toxocariasis infection in population of Lugansk region.

Materials and methods. In the work we used information and statistical materials SE «Sanitary and Epidemiological Station» in Ministry of Health of Ukraine, the state branch of statistical data form «40-healthy», form 18 «Report on environmental factors affecting human health», We analyzed the results of sanitary helminthological soil studies for the years 2007–2011, and data of General Directorate of Veterinary Medicine in Lugansk region about the extent of infestation in toxocariasis dogs, medical records of hospital patients «form number 003/0». Sanitary helminthological study soil samples were made using the N.A. Romanenko method.

The diagnosis of «toxocariasis» was set on the basis of clinical status which was assessed by a 12-point scale with the table of the diagnostic value of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters at toxocariasis, serological data. Surveys of patients were conducted by ELISA-method. For the verification of diagnosis was used test system Tiaskar Strip.

Results and discussion. The share of the positive findings in studies of soil samples was 4.1 %, while the national average is 2.7 %. Consequently, the results of sanitary helminthological monitoring of soil contamination in environment by epidemiologically significant propagative stages of the causative agent of geohelminthiasis indicate a high degree of contamination.

Results of the study sample of sand, taken in the sandbox in the playground preschool institutions, indicate a high degree of contamination. Findings of the causative agent Toxocara canis, the study of samples of sand in the sandbox kindergartens were recorded in 8.7 ± 0.3 % of cases. One of the main factors is also transmission of toxocariasis by wastewater. During the years 2007–2011 3108 samples of wastewater were investigated, and Toxocara canis eggs were found in 159 samples (5.1 ± 0.4 %).

Findings of the causative agent of toxocariasis were found in the study of soil samples in 10 cities in the region, the proportion of soil samples contaminated by propagative stages of the causative agent of toxocariasis in Pervomaysk were 7.8 ± 0.3 %, Kirovsk — 12.3 ± 0.4 %, Severodonetsk — 17.5 ± 0.4 %, Rubizhne — 35.2 ± 0.5 %, Lysychansk — 9.2 ± 0.3 %, Antratsit — 1.2 ± 0.1 %, Krasnodon — 6.3 ± 0.3 %, Bryanka — 1.8 ± 0.1 %, Lugansk — 1.2 ± 0.1 %, Rovenky — 1.8 ± 0.1 %.

The study of various soil types demonstrates the high degree of contamination by Toxocara canis eggs. It was noted that the highest contamination in loam soils (39–102 eggs per 1 kg of soil) and loamy soil (53–64 egg per 1 kg of soil), were less dirty black soil (39–40 eggs per 1 kg of soil) and sandy soil (17–39 eggs per 1 kg of soil). Our observations relate to the literature: the most favorable for Toxocara canis eggs are loamy and clay, to a lesser extent black soil, unfavorable for development is sandy soil.

During the period of 2007–2011 4 cases of visceral toxocariasis were registered, including 1 case in adult, and 3 cases in children under the age 1.9–6 years. Toxocariasis was registered in 2 cities (Lugansk, Sverdlovsk) and Belokurakino district.

Conclusions. The study shows a high degree of possibility of toxocariasis infection in population of Lugansk region. It is necessary to establish a seroepidemiological monitoring of the populations concerned. The results once again confirm the need of a national program for the prevention of parasitic diseases, zoonotic diseases in Ukraine.


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