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"Child`s Health" 8 (59) 2014

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Didactic approaches to the teaching of the pharmacotherapy in pediatria

Authors: Pakholchuk O. - Zaporizhia state medical university, Ukraine

Categories: Pediatrics/Neonatology

Sections: Specialist manual

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Pharmacotherapy is based on the achievements of the clinical and theoretical pharmacology. This part of pediatria studying usually difficult for the students. Lack of some basic knowledge usually cause such problems, their absence doesn’t allow to make synthesis of the new skills. Didactic approaches give methods how to teach. Clinical reasoning formation is impossible without correct organization of the teaching process. One of the main causes of the difficulties with pediatric diseases treatment studying in students is fact, that they learn medical drugs by groups on the 3rd course, but they need to use this knowledge in concordance with separate disease on the 4th course. Choice of the algorithm of the treatment of each disease should be done with assessment of the comorbid pathology, age, ethiology. Although iatrogenesis is very important and should be taken into account. Information about clinical evidence based therapy is needed to be studied too. All mentioned above difficulties in Pharmacotherapy studying in pediatria make this problem and ways how to solve it actual.

Aim of the study was to indicate didactic approaches to the teaching of the pharmacotherapy in pediatria, methodological principles of the practical lessons planning.

Methods: theoretical analysis of the methodical and medical literature, analysis of the achieved experience.

Results. Main approaches to the organization of the teaching process following principle “from the simplest to the hardest” were indicated. Two variants are possible in correspond to the methodical approach. Subject of the study is limited by single pathologies in one group of the common diseases in faculty didactic type. In hospital didactic type circle of the pathologies is larger and includes several chapters of the discipline or even neighbor disciplines. That is why principles of the pharmacotherapy studying in these two didactic types are deferred. In the first case aim is to prescribe treatment in typical pathology, to create algorithm of the future actions. In the second – to chose tactics in nontypical disease, to individualize and to correct treatment in concordance with given data.

Integration of the studying and control methods based on the literature review was proposed. The next forms of studying were indicated: lectures that include chapter about pharmacotherapy, demonstration of the medical forms, brochures. As control approaches the following methods should be used: filling of the treatment list, prescription of the treatment in the situational tasks, tests, exam. Case history defend is part of the self work of the student and should be provided as credit-module process requires. Because of that fact that teacher and student double side communication occurs in this kind of work, student have opportunity to discuss approaches, to try to manage patient as in real life under supervision of the clinician. Student achieve enough time for thinking, he have ability to work with literature, to have different kinds of memory fixation. The final part should include oral defense of the students’ case history, when pharmacotherapy plan should be improved.

On the hospital stage thematic exam of the patients can be added, that will allow to discuss possible types of treatment tactics and to start clinical reasoning formation in student. This will be the way to test students knowledge in practice.

During several years our department provided for use list of the medications for each practical lesson. This help student to orientate on the market of the pharmacological drugs and to create simplest algorithm of the treatment in each typical pathology. This experience is base for further knowledge achievement.

There are following requirements to the individualization of the treatment, study of the principles of the pharmacoeconomics, evidence based therapy were indicated in the literature. Data from the last clinical evidence based archive Cochrane review are added in the teaching process on the faculty department in Zaporizhia state medical university. Although discussion of the information about pharmacotherapy in pediatria taken from the last conferences should be provided into the teaching process.

Conclusions. It’s important to emphasize that complex approach, safe of the portability of the didactic principles, it will allow to improve student knowledge. Elements of the self work under supervision of the clinician help students to start association and clinical reasoning formation. Teaching of the pharmacotherapy of the children diseases should take into account elements of the evidence based medicine, pharmacoeconomics.


Bibliography

1.    Metodyka perekhodu do vykladannya klinichnoyi pediatriyi za Bolons'kym protsessom [Tekst] / O.O. Dobryk, S.L. Nyan'kovs'kyy, L.P. Dedyshyn [y dr.] // Zhurnal «Zdorov'e rebenka». – 2007, 3(6), rezhym elektronnoho dostupu: http://www.mif-ua.com/archive/issue-34277.

2.    Metodolohycheskye pryntsypы y metodycheskye osobennosty dydakycheskykh typov prepodavanyya pedyatryy studentam v medytsynskom VUZe [Tekst] / A.Ya. Osyn, S.N. Benyova, N.P. Blokhyna, [y dr.]  // Pedyatryya.-2010, Tom 89/# 4. -  s. 127-131.

3.    Stratehyya sovershenstvovanyya prepodavanyya propedevtyky pedyatryy v vыsshykh uchebnыkh zavedenyyakh IV urovnya akkredytatsyy [Tekst] / V.K. Shmulych, T.B. Yshchenko, V.V. Staruseva, O.V. Shmulych // Medytsyna s'ohodni i zavtra. – 2013, #2(59). – s. 146-149.

4.    Fedchenko S.N. Yspol'zovanye sovremennыkh tekhnolohyy, systemы kontrolya y korrektsyy znanyy studentov v kontekste Bolonskoho protsessa [Tekst] // Klinichna ta eksperymental'na patolohiya. — 2006. — T. 5, # 1. — S. 53-56.

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