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"Child`s Health" 2 (45) 2013

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Condition of adaptation mechanisms to the teaching load in high school students with different levels of professional readiness

Authors: G.N. Danilenko, Zh.V. Sotnikova-Meleshkina, O. Ya. Mikhalchuk, K.A. Stepanchenko, State Institution “Institution of Children and Adolescents Health Care National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine”

Categories: Pediatrics/Neonatology

Sections: Specialist manual

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In order to improve the efficiency of diagnosis disadaptative states to the teaching load at the senior pupils were surveyed 69 teenage boys (15-16 years). Are defined hygienically relevant indicators of professional self: the capacity for self-realization ("autonomy"), awareness of their compliance and ability chosen profile learning ("informed"), the validity of the decision-making, the ability to plan their career path and emotional "inclusion" in the decision-making regarding professional self. According to these indicators, high school students were divided into four groups of professional readiness (GPR).First group of students decided on the  professional future, pupils of second group  made professional choice influenced by the opinions of others, students of third group  chose intuitively, but well informed about future operating conditions and obligations. Senior pupils of fourth group have no stable views on their professional future.

To assess the physiological "price" of the result achieved was used the method of heart rate variability (HRV). HRV was determined using a certified computer diagnostic system «CardioLab +» (Ukraine) with the analysis of the five-minute recordings. Parameters  of hemodynamic was studied by groups at the beginning and end of the school year using exercise stress test - Harvard step test for the adapted methodology developed Abrosimova L.I. and co-authors. For the distribution of seniors pupils was used a cluster and discriminant analysis.

Analysis of the results of HRV in the general group of senior showed negative growth by the end of the academic year, which consists in the increase of the role of link in the sympathetic regulation of heart rate and decreasing the adaptive-trophic function of the parasympathetic nervous system.

The analysis of HRV of students in groups with different types of professional readiness showed initial predominance of low-frequency range of the share at the beginning of the school year, which may indicate the activation of the central regulatory mechanisms, reducing the adaptive abilities of the students.

The level of functioning of the circulatory system (minute and stroke volume, heart rate, blood pressure) had the most favorable value at the beginning of the school year in senior second GPR against parasympathetic predominance activity of the autonomic nervous system in terms of HRV. However, hemodynamic and HRV by the end of the year suffered negative growth in the form of lower levels of functioning, increasing tension of regulatory systems, reduction of functional reserve, decreased response to functional load, increasing the share of slow-wave components, activation of the sympathetic nervous system.

The fourth group of students at the beginning of the year had a high initial tension of regulatory systems, decreased response to physical activity, as determined in accordance with HRV. But by the end of the school year further centralization control heart rate led to a deterioration of myocardial hemodynamic homeostasis, decreased adaptability teenagers

In 3d GPR the expressed enough stake of high-frequency component was initially marked in adjusting of cardiac rhythm that can be bound mainly to the parasympathetic link of adjusting. However growth of slow part of spectral power of HRV, activating of more high levels of management, happened during a school year that resulted in the yet greater decline of functional backlogs. Thus the level of functioning was saved at former level.

The level of performance remained the same during the school year and in first GPR, but the "price adjustment" constant myocardial hemodynamic homeostasis, increased and was to increase the voltage cardiovascular regulatory systems by the end of the school year.

The most pronounced vegetative disorders and myocardial hemodynamic homeostasis with decreased level of functioning during the academic year was in 2d and 4th GPR, suggesting the threat of failure of adaptive mechanisms. The phenomena of exclusion and low stress levels are associated with high school students their personal characteristics. Thus, among these groups dominated teens, diffident, shall communicate not always follow through, emotionally unstable, no stable views on the future of their professional and / or undertake the professional choice influenced by the opinions of others. Lack of perseverance in the behavior of students reduces tolerance to various stress factors, which certainly affects the overall adaptive reactions.


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