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"Actual Infectology" 2 (11) 2016

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The Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Viral Infections in Children from Bukovina

Authors: Sorokman T.V., Sokolnyk S.V., Makarova E.V. - Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine

Categories: Infectious diseases

Sections: Medical forums

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The article was published on p. 153

 

Introduction. Acute respiratory infections are classified as upper respiratory tract infections or lower respiratory tract infections. The upper respiratory tract consists of the airways from the nostrils to the vocal cords in the larynx, including the paranasal sinuses and the middle ear. The lower respiratory tract covers the continuation of the airways from the trachea and bronchi to the bronchioles and the alveoli. About 10.8 millions children die each year. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 2 million children under five die of pneumonia each year.

Aim. To study the prevalence of acute respiratory infections in children.
Methods. The morbidity of acute respiratory infections in young children and the role of respiratory viruses were evaluated in a 29-month household-based study in Bukovina region; subjects were 175 children under 5 years of age in 63 families.
Results. Home visits were conducted three times weekly, during which the staff recorded the presence of respiratory and systemic symptoms and collected upper respiratory tract samples for viral isolation. A large and sustained burden of respiratory illness was observed, and respiratory viruses were isolated in 35 % of the samples collected. Of the isolates, 45.6 % were rhinoviruses, 16 % — ​parainfluenza viruses, 15.8 % — ​enteroviruses, 9.9 % — ​adenoviruses, 7.0 % — ​herpes simplex viruses, and 5.7 % — ​influenza viruses.
Severity of clinical signs of the disease depends on the severity of its course. For severe course in 9.5 % of patients, the clinical picture is dominated by symptoms of significant intoxication, which was shown in 8.3 % of patients with delusions, hallucinations, insomnia and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The body temperature was higher than 39.5–40 °C. Complications occurred in 14.2 % of patients: sinusitis — ​4, otitis — ​3, bronchitis — ​6, pneumonia — ​in 3, deaths were not registered.
It was found the increase in the sizes of regional lymph nodes (submandibular, anterior ear, neck) — ​38.8 % patients, indicating the involvement in the pathological process of lymphoid tissue. In 1.5 % patients, lymph nodes were slightly enlarged, painless, of elastic consistency, not united among themselves and with the surrounding tissue. In 1 % of patients, palpation determined liver.
Percussion of the lungs showed emphysematous areas in 8.2 % of patients. Auscultation, against breathing hard in 9.0 % patients listened to dry wheezing. In 20.2 % of patients, the signs of lung and bronchus combined with symptoms of rhinitis, pharyngitis. In 1.1 % of patients, there was exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, in 0.6 % — ​of purulent otitis.
Conclusion. The results indicate that children in Bukovina region have a high prevalence of respiratory diseases and that rhinovirus is the most common respiratory virus.

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