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"Actual Infectology" Том 6, №3, 2018

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Occult HBV infection

Authors: Зайцев И.А.
Национальный медицинский университет им. А.А. Богомольца, г. Киев, Украина

Categories: Infectious diseases

Sections: Specialist manual

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Summary

Огляд присвячений термінології, причинам розвитку, епідеміології, клінічній значущості окультної HBV-інфекції (ОВІ). Акцентується увага на відмінностях у визначеннях ОВІ, що даються Європейською, Американською і Азіатсько-Тихоокеанською асоціаціями з вивчення хвороб печінки. Наведено сучасні дані про різного типу мутації, що можуть вести до розвитку ОВІ. Обговорюється питання про наявність специфічних мутацій, що відрізняють ОВІ від інших форм HBV-інфекції, при яких антиген вірусу гепатита В (HBsAg) може не виявлятися. Розглянуто значимість хворих ОВІ як джерел інфекції в трансплантології та трансфузіології. Велику увагу приділено можливості реактивації ОВІ у хворих з імуносупресією, а також при коінфекції вірусами гепатиту С і ВІЛ. Наводяться дані про можливу роль ОВІ в розвитку цирозу печінки і гепатоцелюлярної карциноми.

Обзор посвящен терминологии, причинам развития, эпидемиологии, клинической значимости оккультной HBV-инфекции (ОВИ). Акцентируется внимание на различиях в определениях ОВИ, даваемых Европейской, Американской и Азиатско-Тихоокеанской ассоциациями по изучению болезней печени. Приведены современные данные о различного типа мутациях, которые могут вести к развитию ОВИ. Обсуждается вопрос о наличии специфических мутаций, отличающих ОВИ от других форм HBV-инфекции, при которых антиген вируса гепатита В (HBsAg) может не выявляться. Рассмотрена значимость больных ОВИ как источников инфекции в трансплантологии и трансфузиологии. Большое внимание уделено возможности реактивации ОВИ у больных с иммуносупрессией, а также при коинфекции вирусами гепатита С и ВИЧ. Приводятся данные о возможной роли ОВИ в развитии цирроза печени и гепатоцеллюлярной карциномы.

The review focuses on terminology, causes, epidemiology, clinical significance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI). Attention is paid to the differences in the defi­nitions of OBI given by the European, American and Asian-Pacific associations for the study of the liver diseases. Current data are presented on various types of mutations that can lead to the development of OBI. The question is discussed about the presence of specific mutations that distinguish OBI from other forms of HBV infection, in which HBsAg may not be detected. The significance of OBI patients as sources of infection in transplantology and transfusiology is considered. Great attention is paid to the risk of OBI reactivation in patients with immunosuppression, as well as in co-infection of hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses. Data are presented on the possible role of OBI in the occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.


Keywords

окультна HBV-інфекція; HBsAg; мутація; епідеміологія; цироз печінки; гепатоцелюлярна карцинома

оккультная HBV-инфекция; HBsAg; мутация; эпидемиология; цирроз печени; гепатоцеллюлярная карцинома

occult HBV infection; HBsAg; mutation; epidemio­logy; liver cirrhosis; hepatocellular carcinoma


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